August 8, 2004
BY ALUN REES
FRANCIS CRICK, the Nobel Prize-winning father of modern genetics, was
under the influence of LSD when he first deduced thedouble-helix structure
of DNA nearly 50 years ago.
The abrasive and unorthodox Crick and his brilliant American co-researcher
James Watson famously celebrated their eureka moment in March 1953 by
running from the now legendary Cavendish Laboratory in
Cambridge to the nearby Eagle pub, where they announced over pints of
bitter that they had discovered the secret of life.
Crick, who died ten days ago, aged 88, later told a fellow scientist
that he often used small doses of LSD then an experimental drug used
in psychotherapy to boost his powers of thought. He said it was LSD,
the Eagle's warm beer, that helped him to unravel the structure of DNA,
the discovery that won him the Nobel Prize.
Despite his Establishment image, Crick was a devotee of novelist Aldous
Huxley, whose accounts of his experiments with LSD and another hallucinogen,
mescaline, in the short stories The Doors Of Perception and Heaven And
Hell became cult texts for the hippies of the Sixties and Seventies.
In the late Sixties, Crick was a founder member of Soma, a legalise-cannabis
group named after the drug in Huxley's novel Brave New World. He even
put his name to a famous letter to The Times in 1967 calling for a reform
in the drugs laws.
It was through his membership of Soma that Crick inadvertently became
the inspiration for the biggest LSD manufacturing conspiracy-the world
has ever seen the multimillion-pound drug factory in a remote
farmhouse in Wales that was smashed by the Operation Julie raids of
the late Seventies.
Crick's involvement with the gang was fleeting but crucial. The revered
scientist had been invited to the Cambridge home of freewheeling American
writer David Solomon a friend of hippie LSD guru Timothy
Leary who had come to Britain in 1967 on a quest to discover a method
for manufacturing pure THC, the active ingredient of cannabis.
It was Crick's presence in Solomon's social circle that attracted a
brilliant young biochemist, Richard Kemp, who soon became a convert
to the attractions of both cannabis and LSD. Kemp was recruited to the
THC project in 1968, but soon afterwards devised the world's first foolproof
method of producing cheap, pure LSD. Solomon and Kemp went into business,
manufacturing acid in a succession of rented houses before setting up
their laboratory in a cottage on a hillside near Tregaron, Carmarthenshire,
in 1973. It is estimated that Kemp manufactured drugs worth Pounds 2.5
million an astonishing amount in the Seventies before police stormed
the building in 1977 and seized enough pure LSD and its constituent
chemicals to make two million LSD 'tabs'.
The arrest and conviction of Solomon, Kemp and a string of co-conspirators
dominated the headlines for months. I was covering the case as a reporter
at the time and it was then that I met Kemp's close friend, Garrod Harker,
whose home had been raided by police but who had not been arrest ed.
Harker told me that
Kemp and his girlfriend Christine Bott by then in jail were hippie idealists
who were completely uninterested in the money they were making.
They gave away thousands to pet causes such as the Glastonbury pop festival
and the drugs charity Release.
'They have a philosophy,'
Harker told me at the time. 'They believe industrial society will collapse
when the oil runs out and that the answer is to change people's mindsets
using acid. They believe LSD can help people to see that a return to
a natural society based on self-sufficiency is the only way to save
'Dick Kemp told me he met Francis Crick at Cambridge. Crick had told
him that some Cambridge academics used LSD in tiny amounts as a thinking
tool, to liberate them from preconceptions and let their genius wander
freely to new ideas. Crick told him he had perceived the double-helix
shape while on LSD.
'It was clear that Dick Kemp was highly impressed and probably bowled
over by what Crick had told him. He told me that if a man like Crick,
who had gone to the heart of human existence, had used LSD, then it
was worth using. Crick was certainly Dick Kemp's inspiration.' Shortly
afterwards I visited Crick at his home, Golden Helix, in Cambridge.
He listened with rapt, amused attention to what I told him about the
role of LSD in his Nobel Prize-winning discovery. He gave no intimation
of surprise. When I had finished, he said: 'Print a word of it and I'll